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Theories of motivation

New motive appears on the basis of positive emotion under the action of the strong, prevailing motivation. The prevailing motivation was described by A.A. Ukhtomskiy (1904 -1911) and it is named it by dominant. Under laboratory conditions motivational effects appear with the stimulation of the zones of exasperation itself. For the first time this phenomenon revealed D. Olds into 1960 year. further detailed study of these zones, in particular, the region of lateral hypothalamus, it showed that the response reaction depends on the force of the electric current used. It varies from the demonstration of search behavior - to the strong motivational effects and the effects of samorazdrazheniya. They connect the mechanism of the appearance of the prevailing motivation with the physiological needs. When needs are not satisfied, or it is impossible to avoid the negative factors of environment (cold, heats, etc.), then appears this psychophysiological state. Similar motivations some authors call "ekstrinsivnymi" (external) in contrast to the "intrinsivnykh" (internal).

In the work of H. Hekhauzen (1986) different opinions on this debatable question are given. Thus, the motivation, which arose as a result of inversion, it would be possible to carry to the type of intrinsivnoy. However, this criterion is not entirely precise, since the external prevailing motivations, also (that, possibly, so obviously) they arose as a result of inversion and further strengthening. From other side, and subordinated, which arose as a result of the inversion of motivation, under specific conditions they can prevail.

Further, the motivation, which arose as a result of inversion, can prevail. A similar process Z. Freud named "sublimation". But he examined the special case, when sexual forbidden pulses, inclinations, do not find their expression and they are sublimated into the socially acceptable activity. It is understandable that as a result of this, that prevails becomes the motivation, which caused this activity.

Other researchers also described similar processes. In particular, B.F. Skinner in the experiments with the application of punishment contradictory results were obtained. It turned out that the behavior, as a result of which appear unpleasant consequences, does not disappear completely. It only is modified, being manifested in other forms.

G. Allport (1937) formulated the "principle of the functional autonomy", in accordance with which the instrument actions, generated by biological needs, can subsequently be justified already independent of these needs.

A.N. Leont'yev (1975) showed the possibility valuable motive (property of domination) to be shifted to another object (subordinate purpose) and expressed this in the concept of the "shift of motive to the purpose". I.e., the actions, which served earlier for achievement of the subordinates of purposes, can be chipped off from the initial (leading) motivation. And these purposes acquire the property of valuable (leading) motive.

Emotional processes as conditioned-reflex, constantly they find in the dynamics. Some stimuli are added - others disappear. the "thickening" conditioned reflex, emotional reaction - in nature there does not exist. It is faster, usual emotional state - these are the reinforced urgent conditional connections with the signs of the generalization, when conditional emotional reaction begins to cause new (similar to the old) and some situational prearranged signals, and also occurs the retardation of new and brake releasing old (previously braked) conditional connections.

Possibly, this is one of the reasons for difficulty in the determination of concept itself "emotion" and other concepts of the emotional sphere: need, motive, motive, etc.

For example, A.N. Leont'yev (1971,1975) motive defined as the opredmechennuyu need. V.K. Vilyunas (1990) notes the signs of objectivity, also, in emotions.

Objectivity - basic sign. In the conditioned-reflex theory analog to it can be the prearranged signal. But the state of the generalization, when the action of conditional (presence of object) and situational signals can be combined, by most being suitable will call "situation". Strictly, precisely, in this sense this term predominantly and is used.

Let us compose the following number of basic concepts.

Positive emotion
Displaced negative emotion
Negative emotion. Mental injury
Painful reaction
Physical damage

Painful reaction, as unconditional reflex, is object in its physiological concreteness. But in the course of time appear the signs of generalization, which will be shown by reaction to the situation by anxiety state (objectivity, which passes into the situation).

With strengthening of one of the conditional connections and retardation of others (situational), appears negative emotion, as reaction to this prearranged signal (situation it again becomes predominantly object) - this is the sign of displacement.

Strong negative emotion, mental injury can acquire some properties of unconditional reflex, are capable of for a second time causing generalization - to form situational connections and to separate among them one prearranged signal. I.e., displacement one additional displacement (situation with the retardation of situational reflexes it also becomes predominantly object) can follow.

Further, negative emotion again "outgrows" by the situational reflexes (reactions), which being braked and "being accumulated", influence the force of the manifestation of basic emotional reaction. In some moment, predominance of the signals of the stagnation situational reflexes with weakening of prearranged signal it leads to the fact that the sign of emotion changes by the positive (objectivity it is again changed by situationality, but object in the situation the same) - this is the sign of inversion.

Motive (subordinate) - the resulting emotional state, which includes the negative emotion (result of action or deprivations) and imagined, experienced the previously positive emotion, which appeared with the permission of a similar problem. The predominance of the first or the second determines which will be motive - avoidance or aspiration (objectivity in the situation the same, it will be preserved it, also, with the domination, but situationality in this case it will be changed into objectivity, i.e., situation to become object).

Purpose - realized motive (objectivity in the situation is most concrete).

Situational factor in phenomena enumerated above (stages of process) in any event is present. This, mainly, the influence of the conditional situational, associative connections of the prevailing motivation. I.e., under the effect of the prevailing motivation are formed new motives by the inversion of negative emotions into the positive.

The obvious fact is principally important for the data of reasonings: the separation of urgent at the given moment motives and emotions into the main things, which prevail and subordinated, secondary. For example, the need for the food - these are the prevailing motivation, and gustatory senses (estimation of the quality of food) - is subordinate of emotion and motives. The prevailing motivations and emotions still call basic, that lead, deep. Generally, the dominance of motivation is relative, and there exists, until subordinate motives are actualized. Subordinate motives and emotions can be called also derived, situational, concrete.

Most frequently, when they speak strictly about the motivation, the discussion, apparently, deals with the main, prevailing motivation. But motive - this, is faster, subordinate, concrete motive.

Prevailing motivation predominantly of neosoznanna. This, for example, in the state of hunger - desire of food, as such; subordinate motive is more concrete and is more realized (when it appears the desire of sweet, salt, sharp and etc.).

Apropos of the problem of interaction of the prevailing motivation and subordinate of motive, it is possible to give the opinion that the motivation - is the totality of motives (K.K. Platonov, 1986). If this is so, then the secondary motives realized on the turn, in the different time and in different situations, subordinates some of main motivation, composing this motivation, make with its with that prevailing, and motives in the composition of this motivation - not known. It turns out that the subordinate motives, as, "make up", strengthen the prevailing motivation, due to "energy" of which then appear newer and newer motives.

Emotions are characterized by only sign and objectivity. For example, the object of the emotion of the fear of height is the loss of support. Such emotions relate to the simple. Complex emotions consist of the simpler: envy - these are negative relation to someone (negative emotion) and the desire to have that the fact that it has (positive emotion of the attractiveness of this thing); shame - this experience apropos of their act and positive relation (sympathy, respect) for someone or for those surrounding, and so forth however in actuality, the emotion of social plan, as a rule, are complicated by the mechanisms of transfer, projection (displacement, inversion), etc., and some of the emotions, enumerated here, possibly, can be broken into even the simpler. This addition of emotions, probably, analagous to what occurs with the formation of the motive, when positive emotion appears against the background of negative and on the same object basis. And, it is similar, addition occurs according to the same rules: these are the presence of emotions opposite on the sign, and the presence of general object and situational basis. Analogously, apparently, occurs the addition of the positive prevailing emotion and negative subordinate of emotion. As a result, on the object basis of the latter appears positive emotion, and then motive. Positive emotion and corresponding motive is predominantly situational (although during the realization they appear in the concrete, objective form) precisely because "burden" by the situation of the prevailing motivation.

The strong influence of the prevailing motivation can lead to the fact that the damaging factor becomes the object of the subordinate of motive (for example, too hot a food). Harmful habits, dependences, deviations of behavior are characterized by the fact that the motive, which arose under the action of the obviously damaging (travmiruyushchego) factor, is prevailed. Generally, to divide stimuli into the harmful and the useful is impossible, because any stimulus with the large force of action - is harmful. Hence and appear such "failures" in the emotional sphere.

The decrease of the damaging action or the distance of danger (change in the situation) causes positive emotions precisely with respect to of the weakened damaging action or remote danger (phantom satisfaction). And precisely because, as already mentioned, it is not the absolutely useful and absolutely harmless surrounding factors. I.e., there is no ideal purpose (generally without any harmfulness) which it would be possible to approach. But there is the optimum way, whose direction coincides with weakening of the damaging factor. This direction is determined by emotions (regulated function): by the avoidance of the very strong damaging action and by tendency toward the customary, weaker version of this action. So the damaging factors (in the broad sense) can become attractive. (See: Attractiveness, the phenomenon of beauty.)

Based on materials of Vladimir Ivanov's article
"Psychology, dreams, reflexes" - Part 1,   Part 2.

Russian version

Articles on the theme:

Reflexes, emotions, motives.
Displacement, inversion, sublimation - stages of process.
Inversion of emotions - base shielding mechanism.
Children's fears, dreams, nightmares.
Sleep and dreams. Psychophysiology, function.
Psychosomatick, neuroses.
School, working group - examples of mental protection.
Psychology of mode - Highlighting, tattooing, piercing.
Sexual inclination. Psychology, physiology.
Instincts and reflexes.
Attractiveness, the phenomenon of beauty.
Diet for growing thin: "Meat supper".
Visual perception, gustatory sensation, taste, smells.

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