Psychology, dreams, reflexes

Ivanov Vladimir Alexandrovich
Publication of the article: 01.12.03

Part 2

Work of psyche

Studies of psyche in the plan of the avoidance of unfavorable actions were most in detail carried out by the psychologists of behavioral direction. For example, motivation behaviorists explain by the tendency to remove the internal stress, when appear any needs (Hull, 1929). The basis of the theory of the instruction it is "law of effect" (E. Thorndyke). The probability of the reproduction of the form of behavior grows according to this law, if this previously behavior led to the useful result (stress relieving).

If we consider any stimulus in its maximum manifestation as the damaging action, then the absolutely safe and absolutely useful factors of environment there does not exist and it cannot exist. It is faster vice versa: any factor or any situation contain potential danger. In the essence, the psyche is the complex mechanism of tracking and estimation of the level of hazard of that, with which subject it encounters in the process of vital activity, although the external result of this work is manifested predominantly in the form of behavioral aspirations and to a lesser degree in the form of avoidance.

It seems that to the different travmiruyushchiye stimuli, the psyche reacts in an identical way, according to united diagram, similarly how to different damaging actions, organism reacts by stress - single complex of physiological and morphological changes.

With the excess of a certain limit of the damaging (stressing) action, the subject attempts him to avoid. If we it is impossible avoid, is included the mechanism of displacement, displacement, and then the inversions of emotions. The fact of displacement can be inevident. The process of displacement in the broad sense can be understood as the distance of danger in the retrospective plan, including those cases, when the illusion of the distance of danger is created. However, inversion reflects the process of the distance of danger "on the hot tracks" (also it does not manage without illusions).

Weakening danger can it concerns not only the displaced negative emotions, but also entire problem- situation as a whole. Since displacement - this is the temporary updating only of part of the problematic situation.

The transformation of the motivation, which arose as a result of inversion, into that prevailing and then sublimation (transformation of one prevailing motivation into another) they occur not in all cases. Generally, this entire process for the concrete subject or the concrete experience can stop at any stage, beginning from the displacement. Or to return to the previous stages. Was renewed the action of the travmiruyushchego factor - everything begins first.

Within the framework of the theme, discussed in this article, has the value:
not the nature of the damaging action or travmiruyushchey situation, but very fact of their presence;
not the nature of emotions and feelings, but their sign (positive or negative).

The nature of the damaging action, its biological significance, and also force of action, give in the response mental reactions only particular differences, which do not contradict general regularity. The role of frequency and force of the stimulating (stressing) action will be examined below.

The formulation of the "law of the motion of mental means" and name itself assume besides detailing of stages even and the certain general plan of mental processes in their interrelation (see Part 1 of article). As version, it is proposed the more concrete (working) formulation of the "law (principle) of a sequential change in the mental conditions".

"Emotions and motives, which appear as a result of physical or mental injury, consecutively the following changes: displacement, transfer, inversion, domination, sublimation".

A term "transfer" instead of "displacement" can be used when mental process has social nature. Keeping in mind, of course, "negative transfer" ("positive transfer" it will include already and the stage of "inversion") and wider, not only psychoanalytical interpretation. Here (to the "transfer") can be attributed the large part of the processes, designated as "projection". This is the transfer of its own negative feelings and negative emotions relative to its own negative traits of nature to other people, adding by them these negative feelings and the traits of nature.

The stage of "strengthening" can be still named "domination" which will emphasize the fact of strengthening motivation to the level of that prevailing.

Emotions, motivation

In part 1 of article the emotion of fear, caused by drops, awkward motions, has already been outlined in the dynamics. It is evident based on this and other examples (and according to the results of experimental studies) that there is a great similarity of emotional reactions (in particular, fear) and conditioned-reflex reactions. I.e., the unconditioned reflex reaction of pain, causing first the generalization of the conditioned reflexes, sooner or later is transformed into the conditioned-reflex reaction of fear. But emotions and motives of activity appearing, for the "internal" reasons, similarly, differ little from the emotions and the motives, caused by external reasons.

Before representing any danger and emotionally reacting in it, must be the prehistory of real collision with this danger and the experience of reaction "on the hot tracks". Emotion - this the unconscious estimation of situation - the result of prolonged evolution. The cognitive estimation of situation, if it led to the appearance of emotion, this in any event return to experiences to previously primary emotions.

The problematical character of the determination of concepts "emotion" and "motive" is noted by many authors, especially - their relationship. It can be, something explains the fact that these words have the general origin from "movere". So, H. Hekhauzen (1986) on the ground, that the motives of behavior are not directly observed it carries them to the hypothetical constructs considers motives such phenomena as need, motive, inclination, tendency, tendency. But emotions or enter into the composition of motives (one approach), or them they are as, for example, in the gedonisticheskikh concepts (another approach). There is one additional difficulty: acknowledgement after the emotion of estimated function (in the sense of cognitive- estimated) makes it possible to erroneously assume that the emotion is second with respect to the motive and the need. Or when this state of affairs, that the motives and needs stand in front of the emotions, is allowed by author himself. In that case, so as finally to not be tangled, will be required the more rigid determinations of these concepts, what is also sufficiently difficult task.

If we look at as the orientator the conditioned-reflex theory, then emotions in their conventional understanding, undoubtedly, are primary, and motives - are second. Strictly, during the experimental study of the conditioned reflexes I.P. Pavlov focused for the first time attention on the fact that the emotional reaction to the external stimuli, distorts or abolishes the already formed conditioned reflexes, in the essence, influencing motivation. Although on the basis of this phenomenon, named "external braking" it cannot be directly asserted that the emotions be the basis of motivational processes, beginning was established to the study of this problem.

P.K. Anohin (1975) in its concept of "afferent synthesis", the factors of external braking calls situational afferentation and for the appearance of adequate behavior considers, together with the action of starting stimulus and the situational afferentation, another factor of motivation and past experience (memory).

P.S. Kupalov reflexes dependent on the influence of environment were named situation or situational conditioned reflexes.

Thus, in the experimental or natural situation, with the appearance of painful reaction, after some time (possibly, thus far yet did not pass pain), situational signals they can already cause the conditioned-reflex reactions (anxiety state in the stage of generalization). If the pain strong, which is repeated, then the conditioned-reflex emotion of fear to some basic signal, for example, to the loss of support with the drops can be formed. This is "displacement", in its wider value. In this example, since the signal of the loss of support cannot prevent drop, nightmarish drops in the sleep strengthen this emotion of fear to such an extent that would occur one additional displacement of emotion, in this case to the prearranged signal of height. Further, if for man it is necessary to occur at the height or its activity is justified and connected with the height, then the fear of height in the course of time is weakened or is substituted by the sensation of euphoria. Possibly, this is connected with the "accumulation" of the stagnation conditional connections to the situational signals, which with the repetition of situation testify about the safety of basic prearranged signal. If situation is controlled (i.e., man it can either approach, let us say, to the break or on the contrary, if we strongly terribly, go away from the edge) that these situational signals testify (at the unconscious level) that the danger then is not great. If something is repeated - it means not dangerously.

The existing in the subcortical structures of the brain centers of encouragement (pleasure) and punishment (displeasure) - this, probably, last components, where enter the signals about the source of danger (for example, the signal of height) and the situational signals, transformed in the cerebral cortex. If the fear of height is strong, then, naturally, predominates activity it is center punishment. If a stay at the height is usual, then, apparently, situational signals impede the center of punishment (fear), and relationship (possibly, some parameters - purely quantitative) situational signals and prearranged signal is determined excited level it is center pleasure. Thus, if the prearranged signal (signs of height) of small force, and situational are strengthened, then it passes the fear of height or is changed by the state of euphoria (inversion). In other words, if man sees the bottom of precipice (prearranged signal), then fear is strong. But if it sees green grass on the edge of break and is bound by insurance rope (situational signals), that fear is weakened; or sees the bottom of precipice and is bound by rope - appears the state of euphoria. Everything depends on the previous experience, i.e., what conditional connections to the situation were previously formed: it is how much, what force and strength, the degree of retardation. The tracks of the previous experience are stored in the cerebral cortex; this is intermediate, but main component of all emotional processes. Initial component (level of the spinal, medulla oblongata) generates unconditional reflexes.

Emotional processes as conditioned-reflex, constantly they find in the dynamics. Some stimuli are added - others disappear. the "thickening" conditioned reflex, emotional reaction - in nature there does not exist. It is faster, usual emotional state - these are the reinforced urgent conditional connections with the signs of the generalization, when conditional emotional reaction begins to cause new (similar to the old) and some situational prearranged signals, and also occurs the retardation of new and brake releasing old (previously braked) conditional connections.

Possibly, this is one of the reasons for difficulty in the determination of concept itself "emotion" and other concepts of the emotional sphere: need, motive, motive, etc.

For example, A.N. Leont'yev (1971,1975) motive defined as the opredmechennuyu need. V.K. Vilyunas (1990) notes the signs of objectivity, also, in emotions.

Objectivity - basic sign. In the conditioned-reflex theory analog to it can be the prearranged signal. But the state of the generalization, when the action of conditional (presence of object) and situational signals can be combined, by most being suitable will call "situation". Strictly, precisely, in this sense this term predominantly and is used.

Let us compose the following number of basic concepts.

Positive emotion
Displaced negative emotion
Negative emotion. Mental injury
Painful reaction
Physical damage

Painful reaction, as unconditional reflex, is object in its physiological concreteness. But in the course of time appear the signs of generalization, which will be shown by reaction to the situation by anxiety state (objectivity, which passes into the situation).

With strengthening of one of the conditional connections and retardation of others (situational), appears negative emotion, as reaction to this prearranged signal (situation it again becomes predominantly object) - this is the sign of displacement.

Strong negative emotion, mental injury can acquire some properties of unconditional reflex, are capable of for a second time causing generalization - to form situational connections and to separate among them one prearranged signal. I.e., displacement one additional displacement (situation with the retardation of situational reflexes it also becomes predominantly object) can follow.

Further, negative emotion again "outgrows" by the situational reflexes (reactions), which being braked and "being accumulated", influence the force of the manifestation of basic emotional reaction. In some moment, predominance of the signals of the stagnation situational reflexes with weakening of prearranged signal it leads to the fact that the sign of emotion changes by the positive (objectivity it is again changed by situationality, but object in the situation the same) - this is the sign of inversion.

Motive (subordinate) - the resulting emotional state, which includes the negative emotion (result of action or deprivations) and imagined, experienced the previously positive emotion, which appeared with the permission of a similar problem. The predominance of the first or the second determines which will be motive - avoidance or aspiration (objectivity in the situation the same, it will be preserved it, also, with the domination, but situationality in this case it will be changed into objectivity, i.e., situation to become object).

Purpose - realized motive (objectivity in the situation is most concrete).

Situational factor in phenomena enumerated above (stages of process) in any event is present. This, mainly, the influence of the conditional situational, associative connections of the prevailing motivation. I.e., under the effect of the prevailing motivation are formed new motives by the inversion of negative emotions into the positive.

The obvious fact is principally important for the data of reasonings: the separation of urgent at the given moment motives and emotions into the main things, which prevail and subordinated, secondary. For example, the need for the food - these are the prevailing motivation, and gustatory senses (estimation of the quality of food) - is subordinate of emotion and motives. The prevailing motivations and emotions still call basic, that lead, deep. Generally, the dominance of motivation is relative, and there exists, until subordinate motives are actualized. Subordinate motives and emotions can be called also derived, situational, concrete.

Most frequently, when they speak strictly about the motivation, the discussion, apparently, deals with the main, prevailing motivation. But motive - this, is faster, subordinate, concrete motive.

Prevailing motivation predominantly of neosoznanna. This, for example, in the state of hunger - desire of food, as such; subordinate motive is more concrete and is more realized (when it appears the desire of sweet, salt, sharp and etc.).

Apropos of the problem of interaction of the prevailing motivation and subordinate of motive, it is possible to give the opinion that the motivation - is the totality of motives (K.K. Platonov, 1986). If this is so, then the secondary motives realized on the turn, in the different time and in different situations, subordinates some of main motivation, composing this motivation, make with its with that prevailing, and motives in the composition of this motivation - not known. It turns out that the subordinate motives, as, "make up", strengthen the prevailing motivation, due to "energy" of which then appear newer and newer motives.

Emotions are characterized by only sign and objectivity. For example, the object of the emotion of the fear of height is the loss of support. Such emotions relate to the simple. Complex emotions consist of the simpler: envy - these are negative relation to someone (negative emotion) and the desire to have that the fact that it has (positive emotion of the attractiveness of this thing); shame - this experience apropos of their act and positive relation (sympathy, respect) for someone or for those surrounding, and so forth however in actuality, the emotion of social plan, as a rule, are complicated by the mechanisms of transfer, projection (displacement, inversion), etc., and some of the emotions, enumerated here, possibly, can be broken into even the simpler. This addition of emotions, probably, analagous to what occurs with the formation of the motive, when positive emotion appears against the background of negative and on the same object basis. And, it is similar, addition occurs according to the same rules: these are the presence of emotions opposite on the sign, and the presence of general object and situational basis. Analogously, apparently, occurs the addition of the positive prevailing emotion and negative subordinate of emotion. As a result, on the object basis of the latter appears positive emotion, and then motive. Positive emotion and corresponding motive is predominantly situational (although during the realization they appear in the concrete, objective form) precisely because "burden" by the situation of the prevailing motivation.

The strong influence of the prevailing motivation can lead to the fact that the damaging factor becomes the object of the subordinate of motive (for example, too hot a food). Harmful habits, dependences, deviations of behavior are characterized by the fact that the motive, which arose under the action of the obviously damaging (travmiruyushchego) factor, is prevailed. Generally, to divide stimuli into the harmful and the useful is impossible, because any stimulus with the large force of action - is harmful. Hence and appear such "failures" in the emotional sphere.

The decrease of the damaging action or the distance of danger (change in the situation) causes positive emotions precisely with respect to of the weakened damaging action or remote danger (phantom satisfaction). And precisely because, as already mentioned, it is not the absolutely useful and absolutely harmless surrounding factors. I.e., there is no ideal purpose (generally without any harmfulness) which it would be possible to approach. But there is the optimum way, whose direction coincides with weakening of the damaging factor. This direction is determined by emotions (regulated function): by the avoidance of the very strong damaging action and by tendency toward the customary, weaker version of this action. So the damaging factors (in the broad sense) can become attractive.


In medicine is known the effect of the removal of pain during the application of the irritating, "distracting" means. Strong irritation on the surface of the skin and mucosas removes pain and stimulates exchange of substances in those organs, which with nervous ways are connected with the irritated surface sections (effect, reverse to the "reflection of pain").

In psychology analogous phenomenon are known as "catharsis", "purification", when mental return to the past, experience of anew some unpleasant events give lightening in the present.

Food-procuring behavior and gustatory habits, judging by everything, rigidly are regulated. For example, the seeds of many plants have solid shell, which forces animals to be thrown to other power sources. People in this sense have large selection, however, the presence of the small khrustyashchikh seeds gives to some fruits (wild strawberries, inzhir) special attractiveness. I.e., after the breaking into pieces of solid it is nut or solid blocks (previous experience), become attractive the breaking into pieces of small seeds, the crunch of potato chips, etc.

Habit to the hot dishes analogously appears. Strongly more hotly it anneals, but only slightly cooled food pleases itself, and does not please itself at all that cooled. Beverages, on the contrary, please themselves only by cold. After fired, pleases itself slightly fried and that prepared to the pair does not please itself. But more important in this number of examples is perception it is gustatory: sweet, salt, sharp, bitter, acid, etc., and it is also odor. To the tastes and the smells here mainly is aimed the action of this laws governing the perception.

This mental mechanism exists in order with a deficiency in the high-quality products to know how to be thrown to the less high-quality (those, which there is into the presence), that cause larger irritation. The stronger the motivation of hunger, the more acceptable will become unsafe products (inversion of the perception of excessive gustatory stimuli), and also, from other side, and too fresh (inversion of the negative perception of the insufficiency of stimuli).

The same (avoidance also of excessive stimuli and too weak) is observed also in other examples. Us prick up ears not only loud sounds, noise, but also complete silence. It occurs, which tires too close a contact, but also solitude occurs vtyagost'. Here also the situation of the insufficiency of stimuli is received as "fresh", and, apparently, only those weak signals cause discomfort, which imprinted earlier in their excessive version.

Example from the region of visual perception. Let us agree that the large birthmark makes the appearance of less attractive. However, small birth mark gives appearance certain piquancy, attractiveness. However, the complete absence of birth marks and other small defects of the skin as after the application of powder, makes face unnatural, maskoobraznym. I.e., positive emotions cause the signal of mean power (small birth mark). Strong signal and very weak signal cause negative emotions.

The action of such natural factors as cold rain, high wind, snow-storm or, on the contrary, heat, invariably cause negative emotions. The same factors of smaller force become already pleasant: light breeze, warm rain, the moderate snowfall, or when in the hot weather begins to fall midday intense heat, then this has already been received as the desired coolness. The deprivation of all these factors, for example, a prolonged stay in the accomodation - causes discomfort.

Effect of training. After large loads with the ease is carried out that to the trainings was carried out with difficulty.

The state of satisfaction, pleasant muscular weakening appears after physical load during rest. From other side, the muscle tension after prolonged idleness also causes satisfaction (for example, after sleep or prolonged seat it appears the desire "to be stretched").

Even insignificant temporary lightening or successful fulfillment make the difficult, complex work of attractive, interesting. In this case, in the days of leisure, the man to be burdened by idleness, mentally returns to his work.

Sleep and dreams

In the evolutionary plan the sleep of warm-blooded animals, which has rapid (paradoxical, REM) and slow phases, became its kind a compromise between the need for leisure from one side and the requirement of safety, the need for adaptation to cold during the sleep - with another. It seems that the slow phase - major, most ancient portion of the sleep. However, rapid sleep in connection with teplokrovnost'yu could arise from the mechanism of the similar to warming-up on leaving from the state of the hibernation (hibernation - this retarding of all functions with a decrease in the temperature of body). Possibly, upon transfer to teplokrovnosti there were forms of already warm-blooded animals, whose daily sleep was still similar to the torpor (some very small warm-blooded animals have a similar torpor it is observed now). Such sleep- torpor in some stage of evolutionary development could have not only daily rhythm, but also repeated cycles (torpor - warming-up) during 24 hrs or only at night. I.e. as in the contemporary structure of sleep, which proved to be very valuable acquisition and it was fastened in the predominant number it was specific warm-blooded animals.

The rapid phase of sleep guarantees the instantaneous return of consciousness, capability for orientation with the awakening during or at the end of this phase. The paralyzed state during this active phase makes possible for animals to remain concealed before the predators. All this increases safety, and, possibly, even the rapid motions of eyes in that sleeping, seen for those surrounding (signal for that approaching, which sleeping any minute now will awake), is fulfilled the same function.

Another change of the cycles of slow and rapid phases makes it possible not to allow supercooling, which can begin during the slow phase of sleep. For example, in elephants (by which because of its mass it is difficult to be supercooled) this cycle reaches 2 hours, for the comparison, in small animals it can last not more than 10 minutes. Moreover not less than fourth cycle occupies the period of "warming-up" - i.e., rapid phase. In man the cycle of sleep occupies intermediate position - about 90 minutes.

For leisure and restoring the mental functions of of more important, apparently, appears slow sleep this they confirm experiments with the deprivation of sleep. During this phase is observed the deepest braking CNS (Central Nervous System), they are neutralized (they are displaced) the experience of the past day, which contributes to the restoration of the mental equilibrium (it is sufficiently and several minutes of drowsy, surface sleep). However, the stronger, more urgent experiences, which did not pass the "sieve" of slow sleep, "are caught" by the subsequent rapid phase of sleep and they become the theme of dreams. But dreams, in turn, contribute to the displacement of these experiences ("processing" of information) by realizing the "symbols" or increases the probability of realizing these "symbols" during the wakefulness (possibly, when sleeps are not memorized). All these processes remove stress, and, at the same time, they contribute to retention in the memory it is indicative likely danger. Frequently in the dreams one subject can contain many different agitating themes, connected with many associations, into itself. This concentration of events in the uncommon combinations - thickening, dramatization (terms from the work of Z. Freud) - strengthen emotional effect. Specifically, such sleeps most frequently and are memorized, i.e., they are realized. The greater the associations, the more important the information and, therefore, the more it noteworthy.

Dreams imitate real events, i.e., is used that language, which is accessible to us. Function of the brain - perception of the real events of proceeding one after another, reaction on the situation. When appeared the need for (in the phylogenetic sense) tracking the difficultly forecasted, dangerous situations (for example, connected with the gravity), which in reality appear sufficiently rarely so that the necessary experience would be made, then appeared the mechanism of dream. Thus, the function of dream differs somewhat from the function of consciousness, and means the same: the ability to receive to the turn of events, let and generated (example to expediency in living nature: the use of the existing resources, mechanisms for the accomplishment of new or additional objectives).


It is difficult to represent, and this is also evident based on the example of instincts that can exist (and be formed on the basis only of genetic mechanisms) the certain rigidly programmed purpose, motive, in accordance with which is formed the specific model of behavior. The same hunger - these are not only tendency toward the food, but also the avoidance of unpleasant internal sensation. In other words, avoidance (state of discomfort) - is primary, and the motivation of the search for food - is second. Instinct is characterized by the fact that the "situation of avoidance" is created by the internal physiological processes, which are started by internal or external signals.

Approximate diagram of instinct.

Positive emotion
Negative emotion
State of discomfort
Genetic program; Disturbance of homeostasis

With the start of genetic program (innate reaction) or with the disturbance of homeostasis in the organism appear the physiological changes, which cause the sensation of discomfort, that by analogy with the painful reaction it is possible to treat as unconditional reaction (reflex). more complex unconditional reaction becomes not only composing the chains of unconditional reactions, but also being complicated with the advance upward on the pyramid- diagram (outgrowing by emotions and motives).

Search activity in other one or manner or another weakens this stress, for example, by partial or complete satisfaction of need. However, concept "satisfaction of the need" for the psychological sense does not synchronize with the real satisfaction. Satisfaction in the first sense, as a rule, anticipates satisfaction in the second sense. For example, the greatest pleasure of men is experienced having only approached the food, but not after dinner, in saturation state. Psychological satisfaction (positive emotion in the justified state), in the essence, has phantom nature. But precisely this mechanism directs behavior in the situation of avoidance to the side of weakening internal stress, ensuring the complex forms of behavior. For example, the instinct of building nest, parental, care, etc.

The sidelights to the diagram can be found in the division: "Emotions, motivation".

Sexual inclination

One of the levels of sexual inclination - this is psycho-sexual orientation. The only factor, which in this plan can cause avoidance tendencies, is the aggression, whose level is assigned by the balance of sexual hormones (estrogen, testosterone). Aggression can be manifested in the form of rivalry, hierarchy of domination, hostile interrelations.

Let us place different types of behavior according to the sign of aggressiveness in the ascending order from below - upward.

man's, aggressive
man's, weakly aggressive (paternal)
female (maternal)
without interaction (solitude)

Normal sexual (sexual) orientation in men, beginning from the early childhood, is formed via the avoidance of the extreme manifestations of man aggression (but from other side - solitude) and with tendency toward the female (maternal) interaction mode (without the explicit spirit of rivalry), and therefore to gravity to the women.

Interaction between the men according to the type "weakly aggressive" is characteristic for the business, friendly and play (in the childhood) relations, and also - for the relations in the family.

For molding of the psycho-sexual orientation of women important is also the aggressive type of interrelation between the men. Aggressive manifestations - rivalry, domination - are received (unconsciously) by women as the sign of force, the ability to protect. And this becomes the main reason for gravity to the men.

The final fastening of the outlined orientation occurs, when sexual ripening begins, and when mutual empathy is strengthened between the representatives of different floors.

The influence of family (strict father, good mother) does not have, apparently, decisive importance in the formation of sexual orientation, since relation in the family, as a rule, are more formal are smoothed than out of the family.

Consequently, interaction from the early childhood in the groups of the contemporaries mixed according to the sexual sign, where will occur both some aggressive and nonagressive manifestations, will consider standard.

Asymmetry of the normal sexual orientation, man and female, svyazanna with the asymmetry of manifestation and perception of aggression in men and women. With the deviations (homosexuality, lesbiyanstvo), the asymmetry of orientations becomes more noticeable. Arise deviations can both for the biological reasons (for example, a change in the hormonal balance) and on the social (different isolations).

Another level of sexual inclination is connected with the genital sensations (which projectively are extended also to the representatives of opposite floor). It is at first glance, the sequence of events appears as follows: the state of sexual (sexual) excitation, accompanied by the erection of sex organ, impels to the sexual proximity. However, excitation cannot be primary (in the sense of onto- and phylogenesis) in this the turn of events, since originally "not known" what signals must it start, also, for what purpose. The situation of avoidance, created with internal, physiological mechanisms, can give correct orientator only. This situation creates the mechanism of the erection initially independent from the external signals: in men - sexual term, in women - clitoris.

The fact is that the erection can appear spontaneously, and not only during the intimate relations. And another important observation, which escapes from the first: erection in the majority of the cases is not accompanied by the sexual excitation (i.e., it appears only genital excitation). For example, during the rapid phase of sleep, in the mornings after sleep, but sometimes also in the daytime, the spontaneous erection, which does not pass into the sexual excitation, can have obtrusive nature and cause the state of overall discomfort, frustration, or the discomfort of overcrowding and irritation (during the sleep - unconscious) directly in the sex organs. This is the biologically programmed state, the internal situation, which causes the reaction of avoidance. The appearing then (stimulated by imagination or during the sexual contact) pleasant sensations in the sex organs (inversion) and pleasant sexual excitation - are second and they only indicate the direction, following which weakening internal stress (lightening the state of discomfort), occurs, which in the final analysis determines the model of sexual behavior.

During the rapid phase of sleep not only "is accumulated" internal stress in connection with the erection, but also appear situational conditional reactions (which, apparently, rapidly are braked) to the situational signals in the subjects of dreams. Many conditional connections to the situation, possibly, explain that, with what ease the erection in the appropriate situations passes into the sexual excitation. I.e., two factors: from one side, the pressure of unconditional reaction (state of discomfort to the erection), and with another, the "accumulation" of conditional connections to the situation, they balance in the close one to the position of equilibrium (this it is determined, apparently, by the relationship of a quantity of sleeps and by the duration of erection during the rapid phase of sleep), which gives the common picture of the "distance of unpleasant stimulus". This increases the probability of inversion - the passage of the negative emotion of discomfort into the positive emotion - pleasant genital sensations.

The culmination moment of sexual behavior is orgasm - experience of strong sexual satisfaction, which coincides with the sharp weakening of nervous and muscular tension, in men connected with the ejaculation. Physiological sensations and psychological experiences of orgasm are third component of the phenomenon of sexual inclination.


Has already been noted that through the mechanism of inversion is outlined the cause-effect connection dangerous (injury) and attractive (beautiful). For example, wild nature simultaneously is dangerous and attractive. It is analogous with fear at the height when height simultaneously is attractive, fear to stray in the scaffolding, to wound against the sharp stones and the branches (which for sure occurred, and this fear it was hidden before the consciousness) is made itself forest attractive and in its own way beautiful.

This regularity pierces all spheres of the human life (and, naturally, at the lower level - in animals). This - what the lower level of psyche - beginning from laws governing the perception of visual means, gustatory senses, it is odor, and continuing by the phenomena of culture, by aesthetics - by models of interpersonal and social interaction, by the phenomenon of mode, etc.

For example, the desire to make tattooing, piercing, to dress the shocking clothing, at its basis it has obviously unpleasant emotions: either as the result of the punctures,injury (it is possible projection), or as a result of the hostility to those, who exceeded the certain "reasonable" threshold (in the same piercing). The avoidance of excessive stimuli in favor of the stimuli of mean power occurs. I.e., the desire to have entire the same, only in smaller quantities. By tendency toward the eccentricity, strictly, and is made up the industry of mode.

This and artificial gray hair (grey strands, highlighting), and the dyeing of hair in the unnatural color - blue, pink, violet, lilac, that symbolize the increased emotional activity.

The mental processes, which lie at the basis of the attractiveness of piercing can be several versions.
   1 version. Man fears punctures, cuts (this is natural); fear displaces by the sharp objects. Hostility causes the exterior view of these alien (sharp) objects.
   2 version. Man in his environment sees people, which made piercing,; the fear of punctures and cuts displaces further, already on them (in the form of hostility to these people).
   3 version. Men in the narrow to circle to revolve among the people, which made piercing; the desire to draw together with these people, to cause sympathy (motivation) in them switches on the mechanism of the inversion: now piercing (and people its made) seems attractive. Appeared the desire to make piercing to itself also.
   4 version. Man so is fascinated by piercing which enlarges its contacts: for example, it enters into the get-together or enters into the club of the amateurs of the piercing (motivation it is strengthened, it is prevailed).
   5 version. That absorbed by the piercing of men falls into the medium, in which is not greeted the piercing (school, university); motivation is sublimated, for example, into the passion to the collectivization of the objects, which refer to piercing (ringlets, link, etc.), without their carrying.
   These versions can reflect relation to persingu in different people, i.e., to some version for the concrete person and limit. But the same versions - also the stages of the possible development of process in one person, including all version-stages.

Any, even light scratch is accompanied by hemorrhage. Consequently, the form of the blood is always associated with the situation of injury, which, possibly, makes red color beautiful.

The following lexical number, is similar, it confirms this regularity:

  • черный - black, in the sense terrible, dangerous;
  • кровь - blood;
  • чермный - is red (old slavic);
  • червонный - red;
  • красный - red;
  • красивый - beautiful.

Words are located in the ascending order of attractiveness. However, in each of the word groups with the related root basis are pairs with the words opposite according to the sense: black - pure-gold, the blood - beautiful. Word "chermnyy" consonant to word "black" is connected with the similarity of value to the word group, related to word "red".

Sense in everything this can be similar: the etymological connection of the words, which designate emotional states opposite on the sign, strictly, and shows the cause-effect connection of these emotional states.

Two poles are examined also in the English-language version:

  • black - black;
  • blood - blood;
  • blood curding - terrible, terrible;
  • blaze - luster, splendour;
  • bliss - bliss;
  • beauty - beauty.

The analysis of perception and dark-blue (cold) color gives analogous results. Most likely, this is association to the turning blue (cyanosis) of the skin during the supercooling. Cyanosis (bruise) also appears also as a result of mechanical injury. Consequently, dark-blue azure color also is associated with the situation of injury.

Let us examine the lexical number:

  • black - black;
  • bleak - cold, desert;
  • blue - blue, dark-blue;
  • blaze - luster, splendour;
  • bliss - bliss.

Two poles of emotional reactions here also are observed. I.e., the unconscious tendency toward overcoming of unpleasant experiences also makes dark-blue azure color attractive and that extended. For example, blue in the clothing and other details of appearance as the presence of the nuances of red, they especially emphasize female beauty.

Saturation by these colors strengthens the emotionalism of any means - it excites a feeling of excellent. The prevailing popular, fairytale characters appear precisely thus: the whitish-blue clothing of Snow-maiden, the red sheath of Grandfather Frost, Santa Claus, the bluish means of Malvina, etc.

Active also are emotionally the nuances of lilac and violet it is color.

Apropos of the appearance of man first spoke out the guesses, and then there was proven experimentally (J Langlois & L Roggman; 1990), that beautiful appearance has minimum deviations from the certain average, composition appearance. Averaged face, obtained with the aid of the computer imposition, was evaluated as more attractive than the majority of the individual persons.

It is possible to assume that the deflecting appearance causes alertness both because of the association with the unpleasant traits of nature and because of the rare occurrence. It is avoided (unconsciously) rare in favor of that becoming familiar.

Emotional optimum

The defined stimulating action (stimulus), rendering in the different time the action of different force and causing response reaction, seemingly it will be tested to the hazard level, "calibrates". The most acceptable (optimum) at the given moment level of the stimulating action causes the most perceptible positive emotion.

It is known that the effectiveness of activity depends on the emotional excitation (P.Fress, Zh.Piazhe, 1975). It occurs that the very weak and very strong emotional excitation (with the appropriate motivation) leads to reduction in the effectiveness in the work. And there is a certain optimum of emotional excitation (optimum of motivation), with which the activity is maximally effective.

Let us glance at the results of these experiments from somewhat different point of view: after presenting the situation, when the specific level of emotional excitation is not assigned by experimentally, but, on the contrary, acting any stimulus of different force in the different time, to look, what there will be emotional reaction depending on the force of action. Prevailing motivation in this case to consider constant.

If the effectiveness of activity is indirect, but by the index of positive emotions, and ineffectiveness - by index of negative emotions, then the results of experiments will be in complete agreement with examples examined above.

In the examples: gustatory senses, the action of natural factors, interaction with the people, the sensation of attractive, physical and working activity, etc. it is apparent that the positive emotions cause only frequently influencing (extended) stimuli of mean power.

The effect of training, the fact of the practical application of the irritating, "distracting" means, and also use in practical psychology of the phenomenon of "catharsis" - make it possible to estimate role and influence of the already experienced emotional reactions to force and sign of urgent emotional reaction.

Let us present this schematically, after designating some concepts.

The concept of "emotional optimum" - reflects the idea, according to which optimum mental (emotsionalnoye) state is reached via the avoidance of the rarely influencing, new stimuli and deflecting versions of the frequently influencing stimulus both to the side of strengthening and weakening.

the "optimum level of action" - the force of the stimulating (damaging, travmiruyushchego) action, optimum for this situation.

"optimum emotional reaction (excitation)" - the emotional reaction, which corresponds to the most suitable for this situation level of the stimulating action.

the "optimum of sensation" - the version of the previous concept in connection with sensations.

the "maximum permissible level of action" - maximum force action in the most strongly justified state and with the maximum frequency of the action (i.e., the frequency of the action of the stimulus of this force in the experience of subject), whose action still causes positive emotions.

the "minimum level of action" - minimum on the force action in the most strongly justified state and with the maximum frequency of the action, whose action still causes positive emotions.

the "region of positive emotions" - the region on the scale of any action or reactions to the action, limited according to two previous concepts, with the variable factors of situation.

the "region of negative emotions" - entire remained part of the scale, is divided into two parts: very weak and very strong actions.

"situation" - in this case considers the degree of the influence of the force of the prevailing motivation and frequency of the action (both these factors influence will be such situational conditional connections and what reaction will be to the conditioned stimulus and the urgent situational signals).

The observed regularity for the strong, average and weak versions of action occurs only with a sufficient repetition (frequency) of all versions of action, but, as a rule, with the greatest repetition of the action of mean power (as causing positive emotions). But rare stimuli (including extreme versions on the force of action), independent of their biological significance (force), they are always received by organism as new, and reaction on them will be either tentative reflex or avoidance.

In the given determinations the "stimulating action" it is possible to understand somewhat more widely, including not only the damaging physical action, but also the travmiruyushcheye experience (mental injury), which in its optimum expression can appear in the recollections, the daily concerns, the experiences with the survey of motion pictures, etc. In this sense the separation of concepts "action" and "reaction" very conditionally.

The state of "optimum emotional reaction" is characterized by a feeling of satisfaction, pleasant agitation, excitation; the behavior of subject is subordinated to the tendency to dostich' this state and to be in this state.

Strong motivation (as the factor of situation) can enlarge the "region of positive emotions" (for example, in the state of hunger it will become acceptable both sharper and fresher food than usually).

The avoidance of the damaging action (stimulus) both in its the excessive and weak manifestation, leads to the fact that its optimum level of this action is determined for each concrete situation. The strong travmiruyushchiye actions (experience), which it cannot be avoided, will be extruded, displaced and, with the presence of the prevailing motivation, they are inverted. Reaction to the weak actions (discomfort) also can undergo transformation (inversion), which will indicate the return of normal health under the new conditions (for example, in the case of solitude). Consequently, the test of reaction both for strong and weak stimuli also changes the region of positive emotions, is shifted it respectively either to the side of strong stimuli, or to the side of weak. Thus, the effect of training, the application of the irritating, "distracting" means, and also the effect of "catharsis" - cause the shift of the region of positive emotions into the side of stronger stimulus. For example, painful signals from the internal organ already cease to be received as painful (inversion), and the sensation of pain is passed. In these last examples, in the essence, are simulated the mental processes, which appear and are developed in genuine reality "by themselves".

Effect of the summing up

Each optimum emotional excitation (subordinate process), if it is realized, is characterized, as already mentioned, by a certain strengthening of positive emotions (for example, sensation to the extent of the salt product). The unconscious optimum emotional excitation can merge with others into one prevailing emotional excitation. This "effect of summing up" gives the strong positive experience, in certain cases which reaches the euphoria. So, the taste of finished dish is received as something the whole, which causes pleasure, with the fact that the taste of each entering ingredient is not realized.

The effect of summing up appears also with the perception of the appearance of the surrounding people. To each of the features of face, line (characteristic) of the figures, whose quantity is boundless, appears emotional reaction, as with the encounter with the man - the carrier of this feature- characteristic, possibly, which is deflected to that or other side. With the summing up of a large quantity of emotions (optimum emotional excitations), in the case of the average state of the corresponding features, as a result is obtained this strong effect of attractiveness and beauty.

During the sexual relations the summing up of optimum emotional reactions is observed at all stages and at all levels. Almost simultaneously they survive: personal sympathies, close relations, weakening frustration, overcoming shame and forbidden, physical contacts, etc.

Strong positive emotional experience, sensation of euphoria, being repeated and being strengthened due to the subordinates of emotions, become the basis of the prevailing motivation.

Russian version

Part 1

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