In part 1 of article the emotion of fear, caused by drops, awkward motions, has already been outlined in the dynamics. It is evident based on this and other examples (and according to the results of experimental studies) that there is a great similarity of emotional reactions (in particular, fear) and conditioned-reflex reactions. I.e., the unconditioned reflex reaction of pain, causing first the generalization of the conditioned reflexes, sooner or later is transformed into the conditioned-reflex reaction of fear. But emotions and motives of activity appearing, for the "internal" reasons, similarly, differ little from the emotions and the motives, caused by external reasons.
Before representing any danger and emotionally reacting in it, must be the prehistory of real collision with this danger and the experience of reaction "on the hot tracks". Emotion - this the unconscious estimation of situation - the result of prolonged evolution. The cognitive estimation of situation, if it led to the appearance of emotion, this in any event return to experiences to previously primary emotions.
The problematical character of the determination of concepts "emotion" and "motive" is noted by many authors, especially - their relationship. It can be, something explains the fact that these words have the general origin from "movere". So, H. Hekhauzen (1986) on the ground, that the motives of behavior are not directly observed it carries them to the hypothetical constructs considers motives such phenomena as need, motive, inclination, tendency, tendency. But emotions or enter into the composition of motives (one approach), or them they are as, for example, in the gedonisticheskikh concepts (another approach). There is one additional difficulty: acknowledgement after the emotion of estimated function (in the sense of cognitive- estimated) makes it possible to erroneously assume that the emotion is second with respect to the motive and the need. Or when this state of affairs, that the motives and needs stand in front of the emotions, is allowed by author himself. In that case, so as finally to not be tangled, will be required the more rigid determinations of these concepts, what is also sufficiently difficult task.
If we look at as the orientator the conditioned-reflex theory, then emotions in their conventional understanding, undoubtedly, are primary, and motives - are second. Strictly, during the experimental study of the conditioned reflexes I.P. Pavlov focused for the first time attention on the fact that the emotional reaction to the external stimuli, distorts or abolishes the already formed conditioned reflexes, in the essence, influencing motivation. Although on the basis of this phenomenon, named "external braking" it cannot be directly asserted that the emotions be the basis of motivational processes, beginning was established to the study of this problem.
P.K. Anohin (1975) in its concept of "afferent synthesis", the factors of external braking calls situational afferentation and for the appearance of adequate behavior considers, together with the action of starting stimulus and the situational afferentation, another factor of motivation and past experience (memory).
P.S. Kupalov reflexes dependent on the influence of environment were named situation or situational conditioned reflexes.
Thus, in the experimental or natural situation, with the appearance of painful reaction, after some time (possibly, thus far yet did not pass pain), situational signals they can already cause the conditioned-reflex reactions (anxiety state in the stage of generalization). If the pain strong, which is repeated, then the conditioned-reflex emotion of fear to some basic signal, for example, to the loss of support with the drops can be formed. This is "displacement", in its wider value (see: Displacement, inversion, sublimation...). In this example, since the signal of the loss of support cannot prevent drop, nightmarish drops in the sleep strengthen this emotion of fear to such an extent that would occur one additional displacement of emotion, in this case to the prearranged signal of height. Further, if for man it is necessary to occur at the height or its activity is justified and connected with the height, then the fear of height in the course of time is weakened or is substituted by the sensation of euphoria. Possibly, this is connected with the "accumulation" of the stagnation conditional connections to the situational signals, which with the repetition of situation testify about the safety of basic prearranged signal. If situation is controlled (i.e., man it can either approach, let us say, to the break or on the contrary, if we strongly terribly, go away from the edge) that these situational signals testify (at the unconscious level) that the danger then is not great. If something is repeated - it means not dangerously.
The existing in the subcortical structures of the brain centers of encouragement (pleasure) and punishment (displeasure) - this, probably, last components, where enter the signals about the source of danger (for example, the signal of height) and the situational signals, transformed in the cerebral cortex. If the fear of height is strong, then, naturally, predominates activity it is center punishment. If a stay at the height is usual, then, apparently, situational signals impede the center of punishment (fear), and relationship (possibly, some parameters - purely quantitative) situational signals and prearranged signal is determined excited level it is center pleasure. Thus, if the prearranged signal (signs of height) of small force, and situational are strengthened, then it passes the fear of height or is changed by the state of euphoria (inversion). In other words, if man sees the bottom of precipice (prearranged signal), then fear is strong. But if it sees green grass on the edge of break and is bound by insurance rope (situational signals), that fear is weakened; or sees the bottom of precipice and is bound by rope - appears the state of euphoria. Everything depends on the previous experience, i.e., what conditional connections to the situation were previously formed: it is how much, what force and strength, the degree of retardation. The tracks of the previous experience are stored in the cerebral cortex; this is intermediate, but main component of all emotional processes. Initial component (level of the spinal, medulla oblongata) generates unconditional reflexes.
Emotional processes as conditioned-reflex, constantly they find in the dynamics. Some stimuli are added - others disappear. the "thickening" conditioned reflex, emotional reaction - in nature there does not exist. It is faster, usual emotional state - these are the reinforced urgent conditional connections with the signs of the generalization, when conditional emotional reaction begins to cause new (similar to the old) and some situational prearranged signals, and also occurs the retardation of new and brake releasing old (previously braked) conditional connections.
Possibly, this is one of the reasons for difficulty in the determination of concept itself "emotion" and other concepts of the emotional sphere: need, motive, motive, etc.
For example, A.N. Leont'yev (1971,1975) motive defined as the opredmechennuyu need. V.K. Vilyunas (1990) notes the signs of objectivity, also, in emotions.
Objectivity - basic sign. In the conditioned-reflex theory analog to it can be the prearranged signal. But the state of the generalization, when the action of conditional (presence of object) and situational signals can be combined, by most being suitable will call "situation". Strictly, precisely, in this sense this term predominantly and is used.
Let us compose the following number of basic concepts.
Painful reaction, as unconditional reflex, is object in its physiological concreteness. But in the course of time appear the signs of generalization, which will be shown by reaction to the situation by anxiety state (objectivity, which passes into the situation).
With strengthening of one of the conditional connections and retardation of others (situational), appears negative emotion, as reaction to this prearranged signal (situation it again becomes predominantly object) - this is the sign of displacement.
Strong negative emotion, mental injury can acquire some properties of unconditional reflex, are capable of for a second time causing generalization - to form situational connections and to separate among them one prearranged signal. I.e., displacement one additional displacement (situation with the retardation of situational reflexes it also becomes predominantly object) can follow.
Further, negative emotion again "outgrows" by the situational reflexes (reactions), which being braked and "being accumulated", influence the force of the manifestation of basic emotional reaction. In some moment, predominance of the signals of the stagnation situational reflexes with weakening of prearranged signal it leads to the fact that the sign of emotion changes by the positive (objectivity it is again changed by situationality, but object in the situation the same) - this is the sign of inversion.
Motive (subordinate) - the resulting emotional state, which includes the negative emotion (result of action or deprivations) and imagined, experienced the previously positive emotion, which appeared with the permission of a similar problem. The predominance of the first or the second determines which will be motive - avoidance or aspiration (objectivity in the situation the same, it will be preserved it, also, with the domination, but situationality in this case it will be changed into objectivity, i.e., situation to become object).
Purpose - realized motive (objectivity in the situation is most concrete).
Situational factor in phenomena enumerated above (stages of process) in any event is present. This, mainly, the influence of the conditional situational, associative connections of the prevailing motivation. I.e., under the effect of the prevailing motivation are formed new motives by the inversion of negative emotions into the positive.
The obvious fact is principally important for the data of reasonings: the separation of urgent at the given moment motives and emotions into the main things, which prevail and subordinated, secondary. For example, the need for the food - these are the prevailing motivation, and gustatory senses (estimation of the quality of food) - is subordinate of emotion and motives. The prevailing motivations and emotions still call basic, that lead, deep. Generally, the dominance of motivation is relative, and there exists, until subordinate motives are actualized. Subordinate motives and emotions can be called also derived, situational, concrete.
Most frequently, when they speak strictly about the motivation, the discussion, apparently, deals with the main, prevailing motivation. But motive - this, is faster, subordinate, concrete motive.
Prevailing motivation predominantly of neosoznanna. This, for example, in the state of hunger - desire of food, as such; subordinate motive is more concrete and is more realized (when it appears the desire of sweet, salt, sharp and etc.).
Apropos of the problem of interaction of the prevailing motivation and subordinate of motive, it is possible to give the opinion that the motivation - is the totality of motives (K.K. Platonov, 1986). If this is so, then the secondary motives realized on the turn, in the different time and in different situations, subordinates some of main motivation, composing this motivation, make with its with that prevailing, and motives in the composition of this motivation - not known. It turns out that the subordinate motives, as, "make up", strengthen the prevailing motivation, due to "energy" of which then appear newer and newer motives.
Emotions are characterized by only sign and objectivity. For example, the object of the emotion of the fear of height is the loss of support. Such emotions relate to the simple. Complex emotions consist of the simpler: envy - these are negative relation to someone (negative emotion) and the desire to have that the fact that it has (positive emotion of the attractiveness of this thing); shame - this experience apropos of their act and positive relation (sympathy, respect) for someone or for those surrounding, and so forth however in actuality, the emotion of social plan, as a rule, are complicated by the mechanisms of transfer, projection (displacement, inversion), etc., and some of the emotions, enumerated here, possibly, can be broken into even the simpler. This addition of emotions, probably, analagous to what occurs with the formation of the motive, when positive emotion appears against the background of negative and on the same object basis. And, it is similar, addition occurs according to the same rules: these are the presence of emotions opposite on the sign, and the presence of general object and situational basis. Analogously, apparently, occurs the addition of the positive prevailing emotion and negative subordinate of emotion. As a result, on the object basis of the latter appears positive emotion, and then motive. Positive emotion and corresponding motive is predominantly situational (although during the realization they appear in the concrete, objective form) precisely because "burden" by the situation of the prevailing motivation.
The strong influence of the prevailing motivation can lead to the fact that the damaging factor becomes the object of the subordinate of motive (for example, too hot a food). Harmful habits, dependences, deviations of behavior are characterized by the fact that the motive, which arose under the action of the obviously damaging (travmiruyushchego) factor, is prevailed. Generally, to divide stimuli into the harmful and the useful is impossible, because any stimulus with the large force of action - is harmful. Hence and appear such "failures" in the emotional sphere.
The decrease of the damaging action or the distance of danger (change in the situation) causes positive emotions precisely with respect to of the weakened damaging action or remote danger (phantom satisfaction). And precisely because, as already mentioned, it is not the absolutely useful and absolutely harmless surrounding factors. I.e., there is no ideal purpose (generally without any harmfulness) which it would be possible to approach. But there is the optimum way, whose direction coincides with weakening of the damaging factor. This direction is determined by emotions (regulated function): by the avoidance of the very strong damaging action and by tendency toward the customary, weaker version of this action. So the damaging factors (in the broad sense) can become attractive. (See: Attractiveness, the phenomenon of beauty.)Based on materials of Vladimir Ivanov's article