Dreams from the point of view of psychology are remarkable fact that open slightly some regularities the less obvious in the real life. This first of all relates to the phenomenon of displacement. For the first time to this Z. Freud focused attention, after leading to displacement the dominant role in the work of dream. As a result of displacement the accent in the dream is moved from the main thing to the secondary, basic experience it begins to be expressed in the symbolic form. Analogous processes we observe and in reality. For example, transport phenomenon (displacement of feelings), when the feeling- emotions, which relate to one person, survive with respect to another (in this case to psychoanalyst). Something similar occurs also with the mental protection according to the type of projection. Let us note, however, that it is not possible to exclude the participation of the mechanisms of dream in these phenomena. All the more, are developed these processes slowly (sometimes - years).
As the alternative said, it is possible to give an example of displacement without the explicit participation of dream. This is the displaced aggression, when events are developed during the light day injured side as the reciprocal measure selects attack not on the source of danger, but on the more accessible, safer object. However, the effectiveness (adaptability) of this behavior, it would seem, for the surface view, is maintained no criticism. Even more urgent reactions with the elements of displacement appear with the strong emotional states (passions), with the sudden appearance of a source of danger. Reaction to the pain or the psychoemotional state the expectations of pain as a result of displacement are transformed into the state of fear, and further, depending on the special features of organism, follows one of three possible response reactions: torpor, flight or aggression. Thus, important for the organism reactions always contain the elements of displacement, which is caused by the previous experience.
Displacement in the dream can have preventive function. For example, the nightmares of drops strengthen and is supported the fear of height at the necessary level. In this case the reaction of pain, previously appeared with the drops, prove to be that extruded from the consciousness (it it is absent also in the subject of dream), but is symbolically represented in the dream in the form of fear with the drop. The adaptive nature of similar displacements does not cause doubt. If animals or man are constant, in any situation fear possible damages and painful reactions, this will forge motions and it will lower search activity. Nightmares of the type of "drops", and also displaced means in the softer form (symbols) are intended precisely in order to place "markers" on the actually dangerous situations in the form of the fear of height, falling objects, or in other more complex vital situations.
If we investigate dreams not simultaneously, but in the temporary development, then certain dynamics is observed, for example, in the theme of drops. It is first, predominantly at the childhood, taken the nightmares of "simple" drops. In proportion to vzrosleniya in the stories about the seen sleeps increasingly more is done the accent at the cases of the avoidance of drops, for example, with the walking on the edge of breaks, the roofs of high houses, etc., experiencing in this case the terrible fear, which, as, and prevents drop. Further, in proportion to the eradication of fear, the sleep with the wonderful flights above the surrounding locality or realistic sleep on the same theme, painted with positive emotions, can dream. It is possible to say that this is one and the same sleep, which was extended for many years or, that this is one and the same mental process, which under the action of the surrounding situation undergoes phase changes. The attempt to analyze this phenomenon became the basis of present article.
I.M. Sechenov and later, I.P. Pavlov showed the important role of reflector mechanisms in the formation of the highest mental functions. Remaining within the framework of this concept, for the beginning let us present psyche as the reflector system, directed toward the avoidance of the undesirable actions of environment. Let us note that the painful reaction is the strongest unconditional reaction, which is always accompanied by the experience of fear and horror. These experiences are renewed (at least, the negative painting of emotions), also, with the conditioned-reflex reproduction of painful reaction. Physical pain also is reproduced in the form of the muscular spasms and other manifestations.
For example, fear in small children can cause loud sound. B. Watson and R. Rayner (Watson, Rayner, 1920), combining the demonstration of white mice with the impact into the gong, caused in child the caused fear of mice. It was explained that the extinctions of this fear after the curtailment of unconditioned stimulus (loud sound) does not occur, in contrast to the classical conditioned reflex. Moreover, fear had a tendency toward the generalization, i.e., it applied to rabbit, white sheath, sheet of white paper and so forth it is later, studying nature of social it was insurance, psychologists arrived at the analogous results.
Let us examine how the conditional reaction of fear in the situations with the drops can be formed. In the real life nothing is repeated in the same situation several times. Yes even situation itself changes. From the generation the children do not fear height, but when they begin to walk - much fall. For example, one time child fell and tested the pain, when rapidly he broke into a run after the cat, in other case it fell from stul'chika, and on the street - from the children's swing. In each of these situations constantly was present only one prearranged signal - loss of support. To it is manufactured the conditioned reflex or the reaction of fear.
It is highly improbable, that the fear of the loss of support and fear to the loud sound are innate, as it was customaryy to assume. But it is not possible to deny the possibility of the fact that the conditional fears begin to be formed even to the generation, reaching the stage of generalization- anxiety. However, the formation of object fear can occur when the concrete, object source of pain is present, from which the fruit is protected. Loud sound can directly cause pain in the eardrums, and then fear, but, probably, only after generation.
What adaptive value can have a fear of the loss of support, indeed child does not realize that he when - or did lose support and will not foresee this in the dangerous situations? I.e., in view of the transience, the very short duration of random drop, the fear of the loss of support is not realized and, therefore, in the reality it causes no realized reactions. Answer to this question should be searched for, most likely, in the dreams. Those associations, which appear with each drop: the loss of support and cat, loss of support and stul'chik, loss of support and swing - sooner or later derive on the theme of the loss of support in the dream, and it means - on the theme of drops. Hence the nightmares of drops. Sleep "strengthens" hardly the glowing sensation of danger to such scales, to this fear of drops, that further conditionality, i.e., displacement to the prearranged signal of height, and fear of height, are no longer caused any questions. Like the great adaptive value of the fear of height for averting the drops. Possibly, the "amplifying property of sleep" is the reason for the difficult extinction of social, etc. it is insurance (phobias).
Running in forward, let us note the rigid tying of the basic (in the childhood) subjects of dreams with the manifestations of gravity. The same fear of drops, falling objects, fear of close spaces, connected with the danger of caving shelters - all testify about this. Not excepting, of course, and others it is insurance.
It is known that living in the water sea mammals do not have the rapid (REM) phase of sleep (Mukhametov L., 1985), during which are generated the warning dreams. Since the manifestations of gravity in the water are weakened (dangers, connected with it), then it is possible to assume that the dreams and rapid phase initially arose (together with other reasons) as the mechanism of warning the connected with the gravity dangerous situations, the probability of occurence of which grew with the advent of teplokrovnosti and, therefore, increased activity.
It occurs, that the very important signals are too weak or short-term, but there is the possibility to avoid danger. Then conditional reaction to the unconscious stimulus can be formed. For example, the orientation of blind people in the space is based on what the reflected from the obstacles inaudible sounds cause the conditional reaction of the reduction of muscles of face, received as chill, touch, shading (Beritashvili, 1969). Conditional connection appears as a result of several collisions. The appearing pain is always accompanied by the reduction of muscles of face and neck in order to remove from the obstacle.
Analogous preventive displacement (conditional reaction) is observed also in other situations. So, in the case of the intolerance of some products, their taste and smell become the prearranged signals of the disorder of bowels as unconditional reaction. As a result the taste and the smell of the unbearable product, during strengthening of conditional connection, become unpleasant or even disgusting. In this example is noticeable certain physiological programme, although with the diseases of internal organs is observed even the unconditional (genetically fixed) displacement of pain in the specific sections of the surface of the skin - zone (Zakhar'in - Ged), the so-called, reflected pain. During the damage of hypodermic cloths the pain also is projected (it displaces) to the surface of the skin, but already in the zone of inflammation.
The state of general tiredness (stress) is frequently accompanied by discomfort precisely in those organs or parts of the bodies, whose function either is weakened or they experienced before this the increased load (displacement to that organ, which it will signal about the accumulated fatigue). This psycho-vegetative reaction can be manifested by the sensation of gravity in the feet, by headaches, sharp pain in the eyes, and with the agitation - by pain in the region of heart. Analogous mechanism, is similar, it is begun to operate in the formation of conversion symptoms (disturbance of sensitivity, paralyses, deafness, dumbness so forth.) with the neuroses and in the cases of psychosomatic diseases, which include: hypertonia, stenocardia, bronchial asthma, ulcer, polyarthritis, etc.
The state of mental injury (mental suffering), when there is no physical damage, there is no explicit threat of damage, displaced it is insurance, connected with the possibility of damage, it is possible by analogy, with some assumptions to examine as unconditional reaction. Any factor of the surrounding situation can be unconditioned stimulus in this case, it is more frequent than the social nature. The subsequent sharp mental reaction (unconditional answer) occurs with the significant participation of cognitive (cognitive) processes - recollections, conclusions and so forth in proportion to the eradication of mental injury are included the mechanisms of displacement and displacement, which is equivalent to the formation of conditional reaction. Conditional stimulus here enters, as a rule, into the composition of unconditional stimulus as part into whole. In this case the conditional reaction, earlier which was being been the component part of the unconditional reaction, as a result of displacement seemingly picks up entire it "negative emotional charge". I.e., side-issue at some moment begins to be received as the more urgent, than extruded major issue (estimation of situation as a whole), which included to the displacement this side-issue. As a result of this the sharpness (urgency) of basic problem is reduced. (See: School, working group - examples of mental protection.)
The object of the displacement (i.e., by the prearranged signal, which causes, for example, the reaction of irritation) depending on situation everything can be anything: the detail of clothing, the feature of nature, men as a whole, the group of people, visual means so forth i.e., with a certain stress in the interrelations, for example, with one person, displacement can occur in his exterior view, manner of behavior. With interaction in the group - to someone of the members of this group (phenomenon of "scapegoat"). According to the rule: from whole - to the quotient.
In all these examples is observed the phenomenon, similar to volume, which Z. Freud named "displacement" into the unconscious. It interests us, is faster, displacement into the the predsoznatel'noye, when major issue ceases to disturb, to what - the time can be forgotten, but in the specific situation again it is recalled. With the comparison with the stages of the production of the conditioned reflex, this state (displacement) initially coincides with the stage of the generalization, when a feeling of anxiety appears (indeterminate danger). This is understandable: too many prearranged signals (it is insurance) not "are covered" by consciousness, until are determined one, strongest. When this occurs (specialization of the conditioned reflex) - anxiety it will disappear - urgent will become only one prearranged signal (one problem). However, main problem so will remain extruded. Thus, by displacement completes the begun process of displacement.
Consequently, in the case of mental traumatization the displacement of the fear and other negative emotions from one object to another occurs. By this is achieved danger warning even on the approaches to it. Everything begins from the displacement. Major issue no longer "does load" completely consciousness. Negative emotions soften (they are displaced and they displace), which gives the possibility to solve daily problems to organism, since, being displaced, emotions are actualized in the side-issue only irregularly, under the influence of the corresponding stimuli.
Further, if danger stepped back, or when the displaced and unbiased emotions (problem) prevent solution of other problems (with the presence of the corresponding motivation), occurs "inversion" - the replacement of negative emotions by positive. The behavior radically changes: strategy of avoidance is substituted by strategy of reaching. That earlier caused fear, aversion, irritation, now causes interest, desire to possess this or to experience the previously avoided sensations. I.e., appears the subordinate motivation, whose appearance is connected with the prevailing motivation.
The fear of height, which unavoidably appears with the collision with the reality, in some situations can prevent the satisfaction of vital needs. Therefore the fear of height, which arose and intensified in the dreams, in the dreams is weakened. For example, when the need for obtaining fruits on the high tree appears, then the reciprocal effect of the motivation of hunger and emotion of the fear of height switches on the mechanism of dream, which begins to generate sleeps on the theme of wonderful flights, gripping adventures in the mountains or fearless lazan'ya on the trees. Weakened (inverted) thus fear in the dreams, already more easily is inverted also in the real situation: with the presence of the prevailing motivation the fear of height and drops begins to be received as the state of euphoria - and fear removing.
Analogously is removed the fear of close spaces, connected with the possibility of caving shelters. When the need for being covered from the foul weather (motivation of the avoidance of unfavorable actions) increasingly more frequently appears, in the dreams can appear the subjects of the gripping adventures in the caves, labyrinths and so forth these inversions in the sleep weaken fear. In reality, in the appropriate situations, inversion is led to the automatism and it can occur already without the visible reason. So children love to construct huts and houses and to hide in them independent of weather conditions.
Inversion is observed also after painful reaction. Those organs, which in the unfavorable situation (stress) became the object of the displaced pain, under the favorable conditions (presence of motivation) cease to be ill, to cause discomfort and, possibly, due to the flow of the blood they increase their functional activity (what is the prerequisite of recovery). At least, to this result it leads the skin itch (inversion of pain), which facilitates an improvement in the blood supply of the healing wound via combing.
The wide circle of all possible inversions occurs under the action of sexual inclination. Thus, the smells or the visual means, in other cases which cause aversion, in the intimate interrelations can acquire the property of the additional exciting factor.
In the ordinary life the inversion can appear as the appeared desire to overcome any obstacle, to solve task, to acquire necessary thing, to complete some action, etc.
Has already been noted the important role of the strong motivation, under the action by which the inversion occurs and new subordinate (side-line) motivation appears. The strong or prevailing motivation was described by A.A. Ukhtomskiy (1904-1911 y.) and it is named it by dominant. Under laboratory conditions motivational effects appear with the stimulation of the zones of samorazdrazheniya. For the first time this phenomenon revealed D. Olds into 1960 year. further detailed study of these zones, in particular, the region of lateral hypothalamus, it showed that the response reaction depends on the force of the electric current used. It varies from the demonstration of search behavior - to the strong motivational effects and the effects of samorazdrazheniya. They connect the mechanism of the appearance of the prevailing motivation with the physiological needs. When needs are not satisfied, or it is impossible to avoid the negative factors of environment (cold, heats, etc.), then appears this psychophysiological state. Similar motivations some authors call "ekstrinsivnymi" (external) in contrast to the "intrinsivnykh" (internal).
In the work of H. Hekhauzen (1986) different opinions on this debatable question are given. Thus, the motivation, which arose as a result of inversion, it would be possible to carry to the type of intrinsivnoy. However, this criterion is not entirely precise, since the external prevailing motivations, also (that, possibly, so obviously) they arose as a result of inversion and further strengthening. From other side, and subordinated, which arose as a result of the inversion of motivation, under specific conditions they can prevail.
Further, the motivation, which arose as a result of inversion, can prevail. A similar process Z. Freud named "sublimation". But he examined the special case, when sexual forbidden pulses, inclinations, do not find their expression and they are sublimated into the socially acceptable activity. It is understandable that as a result of this, that prevails becomes the motivation, which caused this activity (see: Theories of motivation.).
Clear boundary between the inversion and the sublimation cannot be determined. Inversion frequently occurs in the cases of displacement to the insignificant problems, in the need (apparent defect of appearance, the shortage of what - nibud' of thing, etc.). This process can be further developed, but it can and not obtain. Inversion will be expressed in the desire to remove this problem (to change appearance, to purchase expensive thing). If desire is not satisfied (frustration), then motivation is strengthened and it is prevailed. From what - that of moment such changes can be named the sublimation: when the concrete dissatisfied need begins to cause stronger experiences than its caused initial need (desire to appear not worse than others).
Is possible somewhat different version: if strong need (prevailing motivation) cannot be satisfied (frustration), then appears that side-line activity (also the result of inversion), which becomes the main thing. From that moment, when the motivation of this activity is prevailed, it is possible to consider that the sublimation occurred.
Both that and different version of sublimation can be the basis of both the normal activity (strictly sublimation) and the deviations from the standard (deviations of behavior, perversions). Within the framework of concept "sublimation", the deviations from the standard can be, correspondingly, and named "deviations".
Let us transfer briefly the signs of sublimation and deviation: strengthening the result of inversion, i.e., the transformation of the desire to remove side-line problem in the prevailing motivation; the detachment of activity, which was connected with the satisfaction of the prevailing need, into the independent; strengthening the motivation, which caused this activity, to status of the prevailing with the simultaneous weakening initial (prevailing) motivation.
It is possible to also name the desire of children to construct shelters and to hide in them without the visible reasons sublimation. Like the desire to rock on the swings, preodolevaya the fear of height. Consequently, internal (intrinsivnoy) motivation (in the literal sense), most likely, there does not exist. Any actions are the consequence (they have a prehistory) of collision with the surrounding reality. Conditionally, internal it is possible to consider those motivations and actions, expediency and usefulness of which is inevident.
Let us note that the inversion of emotions and sublimation, as the phylogenetically fixed mechanisms, work on the lead. When dangerous situations yet did not arise, and basic needs were satisfied, process nevertheless is located in the development. The desire to approach the dangerous feature, to risk without the need, for that appears in order with the appearance of the needs, is actually vitally necessary, to know how to overcome dangerous situations, without a moment's hesitation, in the "automatic regime".
Under the natural conditions the hunger (strong motivation) forces animals to go to the searches for food. Fear to meet with the predator at this moment is weakened (it is inverted). After being satiated (motivation it disappears), animal again begins to fear the predators (it occurred the process, reverse of inversion). The need of safe leisure (new motivation) makes it necessary to climb to the tree. The fear of height is weakened (it is inverted). Such mental motions are distinctly noticeable only at the stage of the instruction. When automatism is manufactured, in similar situations already finished behavioral stereotypes will be used. Sublimation contributes to the formation of these stereotypes even when vital needs are satisfied (animal it continues to guard their territory, also, with the surplus of fodder; cat continues to hunt the mice, being satisfied, and so forth). However, with the appearance of real needs (under the action of the prevailing motivation), the oscillating motions of psyche - inversion and vice versa - will again become the standard of behavior.
Changes in the psyche with a change in the surrounding situation, known even as mechanisms of mental protection, can be the stages of united mental process. I.e., the following regularity is revealed.
"The emotions and the motives, which appear as a result of physical or mental injury, consecutively the following changes: displacement, transfer, inversion, domination, sublimation ". (See: Reflexes, emotions, motives.)
The revealed regularities are outlined at the different levels of the organization of psyche. For example, psycho-vegetative reaction to the pain with the healing of wound can be manifested simultaneously by residual pains in wound itself and pleasant skin itch around it. Probably, the neuroregulatory mechanisms of ranozazhivleniya (slowly developing process) together with the reflector and were the basis of the development of psyche.Based on materials of Vladimir Ivanov's article