Main page   Search on the site   Links   Ru

Psychology of perception, sensations

In medicine is known the effect of the removal of pain during the application of the irritating, "distracting" means. Strong irritation on the surface of the skin and mucosas removes pain and stimulates exchange of substances in those organs, which with nervous ways are connected with the irritated surface sections (interotseptsiya, visceral sensations - effect, reverse to the "reflection of pain").

In psychology analogous phenomenon are known as "catharsis", "purification", when mental return to the past, experience of anew some unpleasant events give lightening in the present.

Food-procuring behavior and gustatory habits, judging by everything, rigidly are regulated. For example, the seeds of many plants have solid shell, which forces animals to be thrown to other power sources. People in this sense have large selection, however, the presence of the small khrustyashchikh seeds is given to some fruits (for example, wild strawberries, inzhir and other.) special attractiveness. I.e., after the breaking into pieces of solid it is nut or solid blocks (previous experience), become attractive the breaking into pieces of small seeds, the crunch of potato chips, etc.

Habit to the hot dishes analogously appears. Strongly more hotly it anneals, but only slightly cooled food pleases itself, and does not please itself at all that cooled. Beverages, on the contrary, please themselves only by cold. After fired, pleases itself slightly fried and that prepared to the pair does not please itself. But more important in this number of examples is perception it is gustatory: sweet, salt, sharp, bitter, acid, etc., and it is also odor. To the tastes and the smells here mainly is aimed the action of this laws governing the perception.

This mental mechanism exists in order with a deficiency in the high-quality products to know how to be thrown to the less high-quality (those, which there is into the presence), that cause larger irritation. The stronger the motivation of hunger, the more acceptable will become unsafe products (inversion of the perception of excessive gustatory stimuli), and also, from other side, and too fresh (inversion of the negative perception of the insufficiency of stimuli).

The same (avoidance also of excessive stimuli and too weak) is observed also in other examples. Us prick up ears not only loud sounds, noise, but also complete silence. It occurs, which tires too close a contact, but also solitude occurs vtyagost'. Here also the situation of the insufficiency of stimuli is received as "fresh", and, apparently, only those weak signals cause discomfort, which imprinted earlier in their excessive version.

Example from the region of visual perception. Let us agree that the large birthmark makes the appearance of less attractive. However, small birth mark gives appearance certain piquancy, attractiveness. However, the complete absence of birth marks and other small defects of the skin as after the application of powder, makes face unnatural, maskoobraznym. I.e., positive emotions cause the signal of mean power (small birth mark). Strong signal and very weak signal cause negative emotions.

The influence of such natural factors as cold rain, high wind, snow-storm or, on the contrary, heat, invariably cause negative emotions (action of eksteroretseptorov). The same factors of smaller force become already pleasant: light breeze, warm rain, the moderate snowfall, or when in the hot weather begins to fall midday intense heat, then this has already been received as the desired coolness. The deprivation of all these factors, for example, a prolonged stay in the accomodation - causes discomfort.

Example from kinestetiki, proprioretseptsii. The state of satisfaction, pleasant muscular weakening appears after physical load during rest. From other side, the muscle tension after prolonged idleness also causes satisfaction (for example, after sleep or prolonged seat it appears the desire "to be stretched").

Effect of training. After large loads with the ease is carried out that to the trainings was carried out with difficulty.

Even insignificant temporary lightening or successful fulfillment make the difficult, complex work of attractive, interesting. In this case, in the days of leisure, the man to be burdened by idleness, mentally returns to his work.

The observed regularity for the strong, average and weak versions of action occurs only with a sufficient repetition (frequency) of all versions of action, but, as a rule, with the greatest repetition of the action of mean power (as causing positive emotions). But rare stimuli (including extreme versions on the force of action), independent of their biological significance (force), they are always received by organism as new, and reaction on them will be either tentative reflex or avoidance. (See: Attractiveness, the phenomenon of beauty.)

Based on materials of Vladimir Ivanov's article
"Psychology, dreams, reflexes" - 1 part,  2 part.

Russian version

Articles on the theme:

Reflexes, emotions, motives.
Displacement, inversion, sublimation - stages of process.
Theories of motivation.
Inversion of emotions - base shielding mechanism.
Children's fears, dreams, nightmares.
Sleep and dreams. Psychophysiology, function.
Psychosomatick, neuroses.
School, working group - examples of mental protection.
Psychology of mode - Highlighting, tattooing, piercing.
Sexual inclination. Psychology, physiology.
Instincts and reflexes.
Attractiveness, the phenomenon of beauty.

Main page   Content   Search on the site

Copyright © V.A. Ivanov, 2003
With copying of materials the reference to this site is required
(for the Internet- pages - hyper-reference).

Рейтинг@Mail.ru    Психология100    Rambler's Top100       liveinternet.ru: показано число просмотров и посетителей за 24 часа