Main page   Search on the site   Links   Ru

Children's fears, dreams, nightmares

Let us present psyche as the reflector system, directed toward the avoidance of the undesirable actions of environment, which switches on the mechanism of pain. It is known that the painful reaction is the strongest unconditional reaction, which is always accompanied by the experience of fear and horror. These experiences are renewed (at least, the negative painting of emotions), also, with the conditioned-reflex reproduction of painful reaction. Physical pain also is reproduced in the form of the muscular spasms and other manifestations.

For example, fear in small children can cause loud sound. B. Watson and R. Rayner (Watson, Rayner, 1920), combining the demonstration of white mice with the impact into the gong, caused in child the caused fear of mice. It was explained that the extinctions of this fear after the curtailment of unconditioned stimulus (loud sound) does not occur, in contrast to the classical conditioned reflex. Moreover, fear had a tendency toward the generalization, i.e., it applied to rabbit, white sheath, sheet of white paper and so forth it is later, studying nature of social it was insurance, psychologists arrived at the analogous results.

Let us examine how the conditional reaction of fear in the situations with the drops can be formed. In the real life nothing is repeated in the same situation several times. Yes even situation itself changes. From the generation the children do not fear height, but when they begin to walk - much fall. For example, one time child fell and tested the pain, when rapidly he broke into a run after the cat, in other case it fell from stul'chika, and on the street - from the children's swing. In each of these situations constantly was present only one prearranged signal - loss of support. To it is manufactured the conditioned reflex or the reaction of fear.

What adaptive value can have a fear of the loss of support, indeed child does not realize that he when - or did lose support and will not foresee this in the dangerous situations? In fact, in view of the transience, the very short duration of drop itself, is not realized, apparently, and very fear of the loss of support. Answer to this question should be searched for, most likely, in the dreams. Those associations, which appear with each drop: the loss of support and cat, loss of support and stul'chik, loss of support and swing - sooner or later derive on the theme of the loss of support in the dream, and it means - on the theme of drops. Hence the nightmares of drops. Sleep "strengthens" hardly the glowing sensation of danger to such scales, to this fear of drops, that further conditionality, i.e., displacement to the prearranged signal of height, and fear of height, are no longer caused any questions. Like the great adaptive value of the fear of height for averting the drops. Possibly, the "amplifying property of sleep" is the reason for the difficult extinction of social, etc. it is insurance, phobias. (See: Displacement, transfer, inversion, sublimation...)

Running in forward, let us note the rigid tying of the basic (in the childhood) subjects of dreams with the manifestations of gravity. The same fear of drops, falling objects, fear of close spaces, connected with the danger of caving shelters - all testify about this. Not excepting, of course, and others it is insurance. (see: Sleep and dreams. Psychophysiology, function.)

It is known that living in the water sea mammals do not have the rapid (REM) phase of sleep (Mukhametov L., 1985), during which are generated the warning dreams. Since the manifestations of gravity in the water are weakened (dangers, connected with it), then it is possible to assume that the dreams and rapid phase initially arose (together with other reasons) as the mechanism of warning the connected with the gravity dangerous situations, the probability of occurence of which grew with the advent of teplokrovnosti and, therefore, increased activity.

It occurs, that the very important signals are too weak or short-term, but there is the possibility to avoid danger. Then conditional reaction to the unconscious stimulus can be formed. For example, the orientation of blind people in the space is based on what the reflected from the obstacles inaudible sounds cause the conditional reaction of the reduction of muscles of face, received as chill, touch, shading (Beritashvili, 1969). Conditional connection appears as a result of several collisions. The appearing pain is always accompanied by the reduction of muscles of face and neck in order to remove from the obstacle.

The fear of height, which unavoidably appears with the collision with the reality, in some situations can prevent the satisfaction of vital needs. Therefore the fear of height, which arose and intensified in the dreams, in the dreams is weakened. For example, when the need for obtaining fruits on the high tree appears, then the reciprocal effect of the motivation of hunger and emotion of the fear of height switches on the mechanism of dream, which begins to generate sleeps on the theme of wonderful flights, gripping adventures in the mountains or fearless lazan'ya on the trees. Weakened (inverted) thus fear in the dreams, already more easily is inverted also in the real situation: with the presence of the prevailing motivation the fear of height and drops begins to be received as the state of euphoria, and fear removing.

Analogously is removed the fear of close spaces, connected with the possibility of caving shelters. When the need for being covered from the foul weather (motivation of the avoidance of unfavorable actions) increasingly more frequently appears, in the dreams can appear the subjects of the gripping adventures in the caves, labyrinths and so forth these inversions in the sleep weaken fear. In reality, in the appropriate situations, inversion is led to the automatism and it can occur already without the visible reason. So children love to construct huts and houses and to hide in them independent of weather conditions.

Fears preodolevayutsya by the mechanism of the inversion (see: Inversion of emotions - base shielding mechanism.), the sublimation or deviation (see: Instruction by the mechanism of inversion and sublimation, Theories of motivation.). For example, sublimation it is possible to name the desire of children to construct shelters and to hide in them without the visible reasons. Like the desire to rock on the swings, preodolevaya the fear of height.

Based on materials of Vladimir Ivanov's article
"Psychology, dreams, reflexes" - Part 1,   Part 2.

Russian version


Reconstruction of consideration from the sites (Ru):
Peace of Psychology (PP). Theme: Psychology, dreams, reflexes.
Membrana (MA). Theme: Article: "Psychology, dreams, reflexes".
Talks on Mark-ITT (ТМ). Theme: "Psyche - sequence of means".

(MA) hypercube

It occurs, that dreams the drop, which is not accompanied by the sensation of fear. this does mean that that sleeping does too fear height?

(MA) V.I.

Most frequently with the drop in the sleep fear appears. If fear does not appear, it means process it passed during another phase, i.e., the fear of height it weakens (inversion), and not compulsorily this will be accompanied by flights in the sleep.

(MA) hypercube

Although the sleeps with the drops and the flights, which I memorized, never were accompanied by the sensation of fear faster, vice versa. and keeping awake, never height it feared although it was sufficiently careful in order not to be screwed from somewhere or other, with exception of the pair of small incidents.

(MA) V.I.

As far as the theme of nightmarish drops in the sleep is concerned, these drops can cease already in the early childhood, when everything is erased from the memory (children's amnesia), and the tracks of fear will be preserved only at unconscious level.

(MA) vishnya

You wrote that the fear of loud sound and drop they are not innate. But what is to be done with the reaction of the organism of future mother to the stimuli - if some chemical processes in this case do occur, they and in the future child are reflected, they can cause - or not? - the conditioned reflexes at least on the recent months of pregnancy.

(MA) V.I.

It is completely agreeable with you, only in the text of article this is expressed not concretely, in the form of the assumption that the conditional fears begin to be formed even during the pregnancy. But was denied (also supposedly) the inherency (complete formation with the generation) at least of some conditional stakhov. If this process proves to be incomplete to the generation, most likely it stops at the stage of generalization - the initial stage of the production of the conditioned reflex (on the base of predominantly tentative reflex). Apparently therefore, with the generation in the structure of sleep high portion comprises REM - phase with the dreams, so that the adaptation to the new conditions of medium more rapidly would occur (in particular, they would be formed conditional fears).

(MA) vishnya

She understood about the incomplete formation. But here even what thought - well, loud sound - this is understandable. But then let us explain the fear of drop (let from the small height) - indeed this is the straight threat of the life of fruit, surely the organism of mother this somehow "knows".

(MA) V.I.

For sure will be located arguments in favor both of that and other point of sight (and for the inherency of fear, and against). Problem in the fact that the criteria of fear at this age are washed away. How to distinguish tentative reflex or fright of the fear, if for these reactions is put even the anxiety state, which corresponds to the stage of generalization? Of toreticheski difference is known: fear is always concrete (it is connected with the specific object or the event), but tentative reflex, fright, anxiety is not. So that would arise the concrete relation of fear with the loss of support it was necessary even and concrete pain. Most likely, this displacement can occur only after generation. Proof or refutation of this in no way would influence the nature of the regularities, described in the article.

(TM) JennyC

Nightmares it is taken when danger next. I have this large experience of their survey, that I error-free determine nature of danger and exemplary time of its approximation. The most contrary, that danger not to avert, how much do not come running to auto-suggestion...

(TM) V.I.

Quotation: JennyC
Nightmares it is taken when danger next. I have this large experience of their survey, that I error-free determine nature of danger and exemplary time of its approximation. The most contrary, that danger not to avert, how much do not come running to auto-suggestion...

I.e., the associations, which indicate the proximity of any danger, as a rule, not known, switch on the mechanism of nightmarish dreams. The realization of the approximation of danger (if this occurs in reality) must nevertheless reduce a quantity of the nightmarish dreams (why nightmares, if fear already arose?). Anxiety state (indeterminate danger) also can provoke nightmares in order in the dream to be determined with the source of danger. The presence of nightmares and unpleasant sleeps in reasonable quantities can be considered standard, but it is possible to artificially provoke them, if we begin to analyze sleeps and much about them to think (that increases the number of associations). the "dangers", which are revealed in the dreams, under the conditions of civilization are not always urgent, and for them it does not be worthwhile to attach great significance.

(TM) 71514

It is strange. But I in the last 10-12 years it saw not one nightmare. When I was still small and watched once the television set sequential uzhastiki to me uncle it said this phrase: do not assume everything so closely to the heart. I memorized this phrase to entire its life.

(TM) V.I.

Quotation: 71514
It is strange. But I in the last 10-12 years it saw not one nightmare. When I was still small and watched once the television set sequential uzhastiki to me uncle it said this phrase: do not assume everything so closely to the heart. I memorized this phrase to entire its life.

The survey of terrible films contributes to the realization also of its experiences. Nightmarish dreams in that case already to nothing.

3 December 2004y.

Articles on the theme:

Reflexes, emotions, motives.
Displacement, inversion, sublimation - stages of process.
Theories of motivation.
Inversion of emotions - base shielding mechanism.
Sleep and dreams. Psychophysiology, function.
Psychosomatick, neuroses.
School, working group - examples of mental protection.
Psychology of mode - Highlighting, tattooing, piercing.
Sexual inclination. Psychology, physiology.
Instincts and reflexes.
Attractiveness, the phenomenon of beauty.
Visual perception, gustatory sensation, taste, smells.
Instruction by the mechanism of inversion and sublimation.

Main page   Contents   Search on the site

Copyright © V.A. Ivanov, 2003
With copying of materials the reference to this site is required
(for the Internet- pages - hyper-reference).

Рейтинг@Mail.ru    Психология100    Rambler's Top100       liveinternet.ru: показано число просмотров и посетителей за 24 часа